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AJPS - Recent Advances in Granulation Techniques

Search by ISBN? The parameter Ka on the other hand does change the total volume of the nuclei produced and hence Ka was observed to have a large effect on the particle size distribution.


Simulations clearly indicate its importance regarding the control of the produced particle size distribution. The current work by Wildeboer et al.

Advanced Granulation Theory at Particle Level

The model by Wildeboer et al. This further makes the model somewhat suitable for replacing the traditional nucleation term in one-dimensional population balance models which will be introduced in chapter three. Implementation of fundamental knowledge of nuclei formation and wetting conditions may lead to predictions of nuclei size, porosity- and moisture distributions which are all vital properties in respect to the quality of the final granules.

For two large granules this process is traditionally referred to as coalescence or simply agglomeration. The sticking of fine material onto the surface of large preexisting granules is sometimes referred to in old articles as layering but e. Nowadays layering is used as a synonym for coating being growth due to droplet impact only Iveson et al.

Whether or not a collision between two granules results in permanent coalescence depends on a wide range of factors including the mechanical properties of the granules and the availability of liquid binder at or near the surfaces of the granules. Being a complex phenomenon, agglomeration has traditionally been treated qualitatively and quite a lot of articles exist in which the influence of different factors on agglomeration tendency has been treated qualitatively as it has been reviewed by Hede b.

In the process towards a full quantitative description of the agglomeration process the agglomeration situation must necessarily be somewhat simplified. The majority of models treating agglomeration at particle level analyses the situation by viewing the granulation situation between two particles.

This allows detailed studies of mechanical properties as well as collision studies far from the chaotic situation inside fluid beds. This naturally limits the applicability regarding the description of the entire agglomerating system in real fluid beds, but as it will be emphasised in later chapters much vital information for the use in macro-scale models can in fact be achieved from simplified particle-level studies.

It is the amount of liquid binder as well as the humidity conditions in the bed Download free eBooks at bookboon.

Gustavo Maia

Such wet liquid bridges are obviously only temporary structures and more permanent bonding within the granule is created by solid bridges formed as solvent evaporates from the bridges during further fluidisation. Solid bridges between particles may take basically three forms: crystalline bridges, liquid binder bridges and solid binder bridges. If the material of the particles is soluble in the binder liquid, crystalline bridges may be formed when the liquid evaporates. The process of evaporation reduces the proportion of liquid in the granules again producing high strength pendular bridges before crystals form.

Alternatively, the dissolved binder takes effect upon evaporation of the solvent. In some cases a finely ground solid binder material may be dispersed in the binder liquid thereby producing a cement-like solid binding bridge upon evaporation of the solvent Rhodes, The particles are held together by liquid bridges at their contact points in the pendular state. This situation requires that the saturation is low enough to let discrete binary bridges exist between the solid surfaces.

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Wet Granulation